For free downloads, see Services >> Resources (free!).... Follow us on Twitter and Facebook - click on the icons below...
Welcome to SHAPE—Africa

Back Issues   


The Shape of Enrichment has been published continually since 1991. Below is a listing of all the article titles and authors for each back issue. All are available in digital or print format. Back issues may be ordered individually or as part of a complete volume. Order by credit card on-line or by mailing a check.

Order Form (for on-line and mailed orders)


VOLUME 21: 2012

21(1) February, 2012

21(2) May, 2012

Hanging On Every Word!
by Mark Kingston-Jones, Matt Ford, and Chris Hales

Not Yet Published

BG the Honey Badger: Walking Up a Storm

by Lorna Fuller


Get to Know Your Animals through Enrichment: An Ocelot Study Case
by Tamara Schmidt


Twisted Sticks: An Easy and Inexpensive Way to Keep Animals Enriched
by Luiza Passos and Cynthia Cipreste


Multilayered Enrichment
by Faye Faber


21(3) August, 2012

21(4) November, 2012

Not Yet Published

Not Yet Published



VOLUME 20: 2011

20(1/2) February and May, 2011

Enrichment Choices for African Civets
Ellen Connelly

Trying Out Enrichment for Red-bellied Piranhas
by Bruno Nalio Costa, Cintya Eimy Kato, Fabiana Lœcia AndrŽ, Ricardo CŽsar Cardoso, Laura Reisfeld, Laura Ippolito Moura, Manuela G.F.G. Sgai, Cristiane Schilbach Pizzutto

Enrichment in the Veterinary Department
by Zoe Bryant

2011 International Conference on Environmental Enrichment Is Coming this August!


Take It to the Top: Using Above-cage Space for Lion-tailed Macaques
by Kristin Abt

Use of Automated Feeders to Increase Foraging and Animal Visibility with Red River Hogs
by Brandon Moore and David Powell

Enrichment for Cats Kept in a University: immediate and Delayed Effects
by F.P. Corbeira-da-Silva, A.O. Ribeiro, F. Fernandes, S.A. Bambirra

Taming the Canvas
by Michael A. Miller, Joyce B. Kaplan, Cyndi P. Johnson

20(3) August, 2011

20(4) November, 2011

Having a Ball: Increasing Exploratory Behavior in

Pig-nosed Turtles

by Natalie Cook

Introducing Nutrias with the Help of Enrichment

by Thais Susana M. Pereira, Fabiana Lœcia AndrŽ, Ricardo CŽsar Cardoso, Laura Reisfeld, Laura Ippolito Moura, Manuela G.F.G.Sgai, and Cristiane Schilbach Pizzutto

Primate Enrichment in the Canopy, on the Ground, and Hidden Away

by Guy Waddilove

Improving an Environment for Rescued Orangutans

by Hsin-I Hsieh, Hsiao-Wei Kuo, Fong-Chi Fu, and Ming-Hsung Chang

Olfactory Enrichment for Carnivores

by Juliana do Carmo Padiha, Eliana Ferraz Santos, and Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz

Helping a Brown Bear: Use of Enrichment to Reduce Stereotypical Behavior

by Ursula Taviera, Eduardo Tunes, Thamires de Amorim, Juliana Souza, Laura C™rtes, Cristiane Pizzutto, and Anderson Augusto

Aardvarks Live to Dig and Eat: Give Them a Little Fun

by Miklos Faludi and Katalin Toth

Findings of the Benefits of an Enriched Environment for Mice

by Lei Cao, Xianglan Liu, En-Ju D. Lin, Chuansong Wang, Eugene Y. Choi, Veronique Riban, Benjamin Lin, and Matthew J. During

A Contest of Ideas: Enrichment at Lory Park Zoo

by Althea Guinsberg

Outdoor Options for Two-Toed Sloths

by Carin Cloete


Papier-m‰chŽ Balloons for Lion-Tailed Macaques

by Teresa Power



VOLUME 19: 2010

19(1/2) February and May, 2010

Reach Out and Touch: Tactile Enrichment for a Brazilian Lowland Tapir
by Sheila

Enrichment for Giant Squirrels
by R.
Lakshminarasimha and Anil Garg

And Now for Something ŅOtterlyÓ Different
by Tony Dobbs

Encouraging Foraging Behavior for a Black Rhino
T.W. Mulaudzi, J. Mokgalaka, E.M. Pitse, L.K. Nengovhela, and R. Ingle-Moller

Soccer Influences Enrichment at Johannesburg Zoo
by Lorna Fuller

Enrichment Adventures: Taking the Initiative— Creating a Program that Works
Kimberly A. Wasko

Developing More Enrichment at Assiniboine Park Zoo
Jenith Dack

How Enriching Is Training?
Wanda McCormick

19(3) August, 2010

19(4) November, 2010

Felid Hunting Behaviors: A Challenge for Zoo Animals and Staff
Jennie Westander

Enhancing the Environment for Longsnout Seahorses
Cintya E. Kato, Bruno N. Costa, Jessica Nascimento Cabral, Ricardo Cesar Cardoso, Cristiane S. Pizzutto, Manuela G.F.G. Sgai, Laura Reisfeld, Laura Ippolito Moura

A Honey Pot for Gorillas
by Emily Clarke

Encouraging Social Behavior in Wild Dogs through Carcass Feeding
C Thobela, Robynn Ingle-Moller, Ishmael Khoza, Elizabeth du Plessis, Tshepo Tyolo, Thomas Sikhwivhilu

Enrichment Options for Pumas: What Are the Effects?
Caroline Marques Maia

Puzzles and Scents for African Spotted-Necked Otters
Alicia Pereyra-Widmer

Looking for Love in All the Wrong Places: Unusual Help for a Bat Colony
Margaret Rousser and Andrea Dougall

Winners of ShapeÕs Facebook Photo Contest Capture the Spirit of Halloween

Can Social Enrichment for a Grison Stop Pacing?
Eduardo Bessa

Using Time-Lapse and Motion-Activated Cameras to Monitor Enrichment
Louise Bauck, Suzanne Harris, Eric Gaglione

Trying Olfactory and Feeding Enrichment for Ocelots
Larissa Nahas, Jonas Byk, and Kleber Del-Claro

Behavioral Conditioning of Koalas to Provide Enrichment and Reduce Stress
Carin Cloete

Creating Immersion Habitats for Enrichment
by Gareth Thomas


Summer Camp for Camelids: Training and Painting as Enrichment
Amy B. Wortman



VOLUME 18: 2009

18(1/2) February and May, 2009

Spinning PVC Feeder for Maned Wolves
by T. Rajan

Enrichment for Tapirs
by Graziele Moraes and Eliana Ferraz

You Can Lead a Tiger to Water, but Can You Call It Enrichment?
by Rohan Cleave and Sheila Roe

Enriching the Days of Our Elephants
by Gina Gambertoglio

Enrichment Implementation: Approaches at the Johannesburg Zoo
by L.H. Fuller, L. Gordon, and M.C. Van Lierop

Effect of a Continuous Drip Feeder of Feeding Time on Chimpanzees
by Naruki Morimura

ItÕs Good for the Animals, but Who Else Is It Good For? The Benefits of Interpreting Environmental Enrichment
by Beth Hammond

Encouraging Enclosure Space Usage for Southern African Rock Pythons
by R.M. Mpolokeng, R. Ingle-Mšller, P. Booysen, L. Nel, and H. Van Niekerk

18(3) August, 2009

18(4) November, 2009

Our Tapir ŅNoseÓ When ItÕs Time for Enrichment
by Ashley Coop and Nick Garrett

Better Home for Pheasants through Environmental Enrichment
by R Lakshminarasimha and VijayRanjan  Singh

Overcoming Boredom in Captivity: Enrichment for Keas
by Traci Wright

Importance of Environmental Enrichment for Guanacos
by M. Florencia Presa, F. Astrada, D. Avejera, and E. Martinez

Design Ideas for an Orangutan Enclosure
by Rita Takacs

Feeding Devices for Black-Pincelled Marmosets
by Mariana Prado Borges, Jonas Byk, and Kleber Del-Claro

Now ŅBatsÓ What I Call Enrichment
by Nathan Coles

Artificial Termite Mounds for Anteaters
by DŽbora Boccacino and B‡rbara Souza Neil Magalh‹es

Enrichment: It IsnÕt Just for Fun
by Yvette Kemp

Shifting the Grey-Headed Fox
by Tara Oler, Kim Szawan, Kim Mathias, and Laruren Lear

Beating the Heat: Techniques for Jaguars in a Hot Weather Environment
by Liuz Eduardo Piroseli, Quezia Cristina de Lima Santos, Larissa de Souza Soares, and Eduardo Bessa

The Shape of Enrichment Website Gets a Much-Needed Upgrade



VOLUME 17: 2008

17(1/2) February and May, 2008

Sweet Treat: Artificial Beehive for Bears
by Leandro Dami‡n Barrios and Santiago Ricci

Fish Food: Assessing Foraging Opportunities for Malawi Cichlids
by Kobus Goosen, Robynn Ingle-Mšller, Dolf van der Doel, and Jan Madise

What Is a Gorilla's Most-Loved Toy?
by Verena Behringer, Katja Hachenburger, Carsten Knott, and Dieter Selzer

Enrichment Contest at Singapore Zoological Gardens
by Diana Marlena

Swiveling PVC Pipe for Giraffe Enrichment
by Hamzah Isa

Using Cooperative Feeding to Reintroduce African Elephants
by Gina Gambertoglio

17(3) August, 2008

17(4) November, 2008

A Change in Perspective: Providing Enrichment for Hamadrayas Baboons
by Carin Cloete, Onnica Mogogane, and Mankwe Sebati

An Enriching Home for Rescued Asiatic Black Bears
by Angela Leary

Making a Home for Prairie Dogs through Environmental Enrichment
by M. Florencia Presa

Encouraging Southern Ground Hornbill Courtship through Enrichment
by Grace Ngweng, Sarah Chabangu, and Robynn Ingle-Mšller

Branching Out for Cape Buffaloes
by Gurusamy Permalo

Horsing around with Recycled Items
by Ahmad Syarif and Mohammad Zainuddin

Main Events for Maned Wolves
by Ralph Vanstreels and AngŽlica S. Vasconcellos

Banana Leaves for Primates
by Melissa A. Truelove, Katie E. Chace, and Jaine E. Perlman

Do You Smell That? An Analysis of Scent Preference in Carnivores
by Caryn Wachenfeld

Enriching Times!
by Alice Cooper and James Creighton

Ice-Timed Feeders to Promote Foraging
by Alex Dunkel

What Type of Enrichment Motivates Meetkats?
by Marta Bolgan, Maria Rodeano, Diego Manna, and Enrico A. Ferrero


A Behavioral Management Program for GrantÕs Zebras
by Julia Hartell


Summary Report of the First Brazilian Regional Environmental Enrichment Conference
by AngŽlica Vasconcellos


VOLUME 16: 2007

16(1/2) February and May, 2007

Overcoming Obstacles: A Case Study of Enriching a Problematic Anteater
by Sheila Wojciechowski

Ping Pong Balls: An Economic Idea to Enrich Marmosets
by Manuela G.F. Geronymo, Erika Von Zeidler Stasieniuk, Cintia Germano da Rocha, Tatiana Pineda Portella, Cristiane S. Pizzutto, and Marcelo A.B.V. Guimaraes

A Mirror for a Wattled Crane
by Stan Alford

Institutional Survey on Quarantine Enrichment in Zoos
by Kelly Corcoran Gomez and Gail E. Hedberg

A Simple Enrichment Device to Facilitate Tool Use by Capuchin Monkeys
by Sheila Wojciechowski

Environmental Enrichment for Cougars: Maintaining Purrfect Condition
by W.K. Baker

Enrichment Ideas for a Blind Mongoose Lemur
by Jacqueline Broder

Comparison of Activity Patterns in an Iberian Wolf Pack
by Ana Bel Soriana, Susana Serrat, Conrad Ensenyat, Carles Riba, and Carmen Mate

Feeding Enrichment for Captive Mandrills
by Estelle Germain, Anne Frezard, and Delphine Hauth

16(3) August, 2007

16(4) November, 2007

Encouraging Foraging Behavior in De Brazza's Monkeys
by Carrie Coleman 

A Termite Mound for Nesting Hooded Parrots
by Laurel Sandy

Enriching Asian Elephants by Varying Diet Presentation
by Andrew Durham

Improving Enrichment for Asiatic Black Bears: Summer Intern Planning and Implementation
by Elizabeth Gross

Junk to Enrichment 3: Compact Discs
by Tony Dobbs and Paignton Zoo Environmental Enrichment Group

Use of Fur-Rubbing Materials for Self-Anointment in Capuchin Monkeys
by Mary Baker

Orangutan Enrichment: Rope Art
by Cristiane S. Pizzutto, Manuela G.F.G. Sgai, Paula R. Prist, Fernanda L. Mouco, and Marcelo A.B.V. Guimaraes

The Role of Facilities Departments in Environmental Enrichment
by Beth Rich

Ideas for Reptile Enrichment
by Cynthia Cipreste


Enrichment as a Teaching Tool
by Beth Rich


Making Mobiles for Birds
by Paula R. Prist, Adriano G. de Arruda, and Ana M. Beresca



VOLUME 15: 2006

15(1) February, 2006

15(2) May, 2006

The Joys of Anteater Enrichment
by Kimberly Skelton

Counting Clams: Shorebird Enrichment
by Heather Neldner

The Effect of Habitat Enrichment on the Mudflat Octopus
by Marie Beigel and Jean Boal

Looking at Some Lizards
by Jon Whitehead

Enriching Nonhuman Primates Using Colored Dolls
by Adalina Ocon and Barbara A. Frase

Using a Moat as Cognitive Enrichment for Chimpanzees
by Cristiane Pizzutto, Manuela Geronymo, Marcelo Guimaraes

Roll Out the Barrel!
by Dee Nelson

"Stuffed Eggs" as Food Enrichment for Marmosets
by Manuela Geronymo, Cristiane Pizzutto, Ericka Stasieniuk, Marcelo Guimaraes

Encouraging Enclosure Use for Red River Hogs Using Scatter Feedings
by Holly Farmer, Erik Dayrell, and Kirsten Pullen

Naturalistic Enrichment: Integrating Enrichment and Immersion Landscapes
by Jon Coe


Enriching Lives One Slice at a Time
by Jillian Rawlins


Bear Training: A Tool that Improves Care
by Gerardo Martinez

15(3) August, 2006

15(4) November, 2006

PVC Pipe Trees: Habitat Enrichment for Arboreal Snakes
by Mary Beth Litton and Stephanie Day

Junk to Enrichment: Carpet Tubes
by Andrew Fry and Tony Dobbs

Effects of Conspecific Playback Recordings on a Pair of Toco Toucans
by John O'Brien

Environmental Enrichment for Companion Animal Inpatients in the Veterinary Clinic
by Marianne E. De Vries

Enrichment Program for Lemurs
by Jonathan Peres Flores

Flavor SprayTM: Enrichment for the Senses
by Melissa A. Truelove and Jaine E. Perlman

Sun Conures: Time Budget Alterations in Response to Feedings Methods
by Louise Bauck, Lisa Smith, and Sprina Liu

The First UK and Ireland Regional Environmental Enrichment Conference (REEC)
by Julian Chapman


From Little Things, Big Things Grow!
by Sheila Roe and Rohan Cleave


9th ICEE Host Bid Information


$1000 8th ICEE Travel Grant (to Vienna, Austria) Application


VOLUME 14: 2005

14(1) February, 2005

14(2) May, 2005

The Lionrover: An Alternative Prey for Lions
by Mark Kingston Jones

Woven Vines Balls and Baskets as Feeding Enrichment for Howler Monkeys
by P. Prist, C.S. Pizzutto, and C. Hashimoto

Mature Primate Enrichment
by Melba T. Brown

The Vienna "Ape Painting School": A Retrospective
by Mag. Dr. Claudia Kment

Enrichment and Exercise for Big Cats in Small Spaces
by Vyacheslav Alexeev

Measuring the Value of Enrichment: Activity Budgets of Siberian Lynx
by RoseMarie Zar, Scott Sakaluk, Aaron Moore, and Wendy Klessig

Education and Enrichment: Children, Ethograms, and a Raccoon Project
by Anne FrŽzard

San Diego's Spectacled Bears Receive a Low-Cost Exhibit Update
by Jacob Shanks

Another Giraffe Enrichment Idea
by Nichole Bouwens


14(3/4) August and November, 2005

From Junk to Enrichment: Uses for a Camera Film Canister
by Andrew Fry and Tony Dobbs

Season's Treatings
by Micala and Danelle Teetzen

The Use of Two Feeding Enrichment Ideas for Capuchin Monkeys
by V.M. Prado and C.S. Pizzutto

Getting Everyone On Board: Shape of Enrichment Workshop
by Beth Hammond and Matthew Rich

Shaping Sound Environments II: Naturalistic Sounds as Enrichment for Cotton-Top Tamarins
by Chris Tromborg

Team Work: Supporting Environmental Enrichment at Paignton Zoo
by Phillip Knowling


VOLUME 13: 2004

13(1/2) February and May, 2004

The Algae: Marine Mammal Enrichment at Kolmarden Zoo
by Sunna Edberg

Mbani and His Tire Ball
by Robynn Ingle

Herpetological Challenges Can Bring Interesting Rewards
by Scott Heindl, Gail Tabone, B. Diane Chepko-Sade

Changing Spaces: The Effect of New Enclosure Elements on the Activity Patterns of Gibbons
by Karenina Morales

Projects for Primates and Parrots
by Jessie Binder

Creating a "Top Pendant" for Small Primates at the Belo Horizonte Zoo
by Joanna Angelica vonde Schepop and Laura Auchinger Dias

Don't Forget Your Pet!
by Beth Hammond

Wooden Logs and Live Trees for Sloth Bears
by Brij Kishor Gupta

Inverse Psychology: Finding an Alternate Training Technique
by Gerardo Martinez

13(3) August, 2004

13(4) November, 2004

Wrapped in Raptors: Entertaining Two Birds with One Stone
by Tim Gamblin

A Big Wheel for Asian Elephants
by Shu-Mei Chen, I-Piao Chen, Tina Chen, Eric Tsao, Chung-Ping Chen, Cheng-Tung Fa, Cindy Lin

Firehose Punching Bag
by Tarh Bedrossian

Watermelons for Siberian Tigers
by Paloma Lucin Bosso

Who's Enriching Whom? Involving Seniors in a Facility's Enrichment Program
by Jessica Ganus and Nancy Megna

Stereotypic Pacing: Further Studies of Malayan Sun Bears
by Robert M Baskerville

Think You're Too Old to Have Fun?
by Bryan Martin

Rolling Around Enrichment
by Jillann Rawlins


A Pinniped Slide
by Tarah Bedrossian


Feathers-A-Flying: Faux Birds for Cats
by Marie Martinez


Monster Tunnels
by Scott Heindl


Bull Snake, Brown Pelican, Kestrel


VOLUME 12: 2003

12(1) February, 2003

12(2) May, 2003

Heavy Prey: Promoting Dragging Behavior in Large Cats
by E. Esteban Fuentes

Enriching the Lives of Prosimian Primates
by Emily Dill

Enriching Animals in Mixed-Species Exhibits
by Angela Miller

Octopus Enrichment at the Seattle Aquarium
by Roland Anderson

Documenting and Evaluating Enrichment 101: Putting Good Science Into Practice
by Joseph C.E. Barber, Ph.D.

It's a Wrap!
by Randy Brenner

Fruit for Felines: Enrichment for Small Cats
by Ami B. Levi

Give It a Spin: Enrichment for Giant Pandas at Zoo Atlanta
by Wendy Gardner and Kenn Harwood

Beardsley Zoo's Animal Enrichment Playground
by Christine Clark


12(3) August, 2003

12(4) November, 2003

Ideas for Kinkajou Enrichment
by Kathryn Bertok

On the Ground or in the Trees? Coatimundi Feeding Preferences
by Ivan Lozano-Ortega

Studying Scent Enrichment for Sika Deer and Indian Muntjacs
by Whitney Furmanski

A Paintbrush for Ibu
by Allan Seidon

New World Primate Enrichment that Is Quick, Easy, and Low Budget
by Gina Savastano, Adele Barone, Danielle Hessel, Vanessa Jones, and Denise Vibal

Motivating Travel by Alternating Feeding Locations
by Terry Steele and Ryanna Steele


Sleeping Cats: It's What They Do...
by Jay Pratte


VOLUME 11: 2002

11(1) February, 2002

11(2) May, 2002

Enriching the Devil: The Tasmanian Devil
by David Schaap

Feeding Enrichment for Red-Handed Tamarins
by Tiawanna D. Taylor

Rain for Raptors
by Maureen McGowan

Adding Zip to Rhino Enrichment
by Todd Maki

Enrichment and the Garage Sale
by Amy Cutting

Bungee Buckets
by Shemia Splonskowski

Sea Lion Enrichment Toys
by Peter Bloom

Reptile Enrichment: A Rewarding Experience
by Wendy Becker

Providing Enrichment for Louis the Orangutan
by Rita Takacs

Trading Places: Animal Rotation as Enrichment
by Mikkel F. Stelvig and Eva L. Sargent

Instant Tree
by Rich Wassenberg


Training Giraffes


11(3) August, 2002

11(4) November, 2002

New Uses for Old Fire Hoses
by Keoni Pappas

Keeping Pace in the Rat Race: The Benefits of Enrichment
by Nicole Begley

Use of Social Enrichment for Leopards
by Avanti Mallapur

Not Your Typical Rhino and Giraffe Enrichment
by Nichole Bouwens

The Behavioral Husbandry Resource Center
by Michelle Templeton and Angela Miller

The Importance of an Enriched Hospital Environment
by Mathew van Lierop and Laura Ewart-Phipps

On a Roll: Novel Objects and Scent Enrichment for Asiatic Lions
by Jaclyn Pearson

Sanctuary Enrichment for Chimpanzees
by Diana Goodrich and Gloria Grow

Meat Snake: Enriching Captive Environments for Birds of Prey
by Cynthia Fernandes Cipreste and Cristiano Schetini de Axevedo

Marine Mammal Enrichment: A Magnetic Experience
by Bryan Martin

Tomato Frogs



VOLUME 10: 2001

10(1) February, 2001

10(2) May, 2001

Providing Elevated Rest Sites for Leopards
by Avanti Mallapur

Planning It Out: Improving Enrichment Quality and Variety for Marine Mammals
by Jennifer Mead and Sue Hunter

Enrichment Ambassadors: Animals Enriching Animals
by Marilisa Markey

Barrels of Fun for Cats, Bears, and Addax
by Elaine Willms

Environmental Enrichment for Ocelots and Jaguarundis
by Cynthia F. Cipreste

Enrichment for Brazilian Tapirs and Capybaras
by Mickael Michault

Stereotypic Pacing: Alternatives and Outcomes for Two Malayan Sun Bears
by Damian Landrigan, Dr. Frank Dlaziel, Josie Luscri, and Dr. Jaques Metzer

Flying Meat: Feeding Time for Carnivores
by Henrick Futtrup

Treat Trapeze for Flying Squirrels
by Jean MacKay

Creating a Complex Captive Environment for Fruit Bats
by Dana Le Blanc

Primate Herb Gardens
by Jacqueline van den Nieuwendijk-Ruijs


Enrichment In a Unique Setting
by Suzanne Merner


10(3) August, 2001

10(4) November, 2001

Making Scents: Using the Olfactory Senses for Lion Enrichment
by Elissa B. Schuett and Barbara A. Frase

Bide Your Time, Lammie: Enrichment for a Lone Elephant
by Mathew Van Liierop

Gourds for Enrichment
by Roxane Losey

PVC - Our Friend
by Tina Friedman

Effects of a Live Prey Equivalent on the Behavior of Large Cats
By Meredith J Bashaw, Mollie Bloomsmith, Jack Marr, Terry Maple

Animal Enrichment from an Audience Perspective
by Candace Bates

A Browse Tube for Plant-Visiting Bats
by Dana LeBlanc

Providing Enrichment at No Cost,
Part II
by Hilda Tresz

Operant Conditioning for Eye Examination on a Black Rhinoceros
by J. Katka, M. Corcoran, M.A. Bloomsmith, E. Garrett, R. Sartor, R. McManamom, G. Powell-Johnson

The Good Shape of Enrichment
by Jo Gregson

Emus, Cockatoos, Flamingos



VOLUME 9: 2000

9(1) February, 2000

9(2) May, 2000

Giant Panda Personalities: Enrichment for the Individual
by Kim Bacon, Dallas Ripsky, Kathy Hawk, Rhonda Battershill

Providing an Outlet for Head-Butting Behavior in Bison
by Terry Steele and Donna Charley-Johnson

Camouflaged Gorillas: Barriers as Enrichment for Apes
by Stella Norcup

Providing Arboreal Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees
by Nicholas Malone

Feeders and Fecal Scents for Malayan Tapirs
by Stefan Seitz

Bouncing Back
by Matthew von Lierop

Mixed-Species Relationships for Environmental Enrichment
by Deborah Warrick

Exploring Enrichment for Nocturnal Animals: Expect the Unexpected
by Daniel R. Tardona and Jayne H. Tardona

Egg Carton Puzzle Boxes for Ferrets
by Deborah Wood

Otter Forage Pipe
by Karen Cowan


Fun and Food for Polar Bears
by Thomas Lind

9(3) August, 2000

9(4) November, 2000

Octopus Prey Puzzles
by Mark J. Rehling

Scent Preferences of Southern White Rhinos
by Kathryn Hadley

Enrichment Jug for an Indigo Snake
by Tina Sals

Utilizing Young Visitors for Behavioral Enrichment
by Lee Houts

Bobbin' for Trout
by Deana Walz and Stephanie Jochum Natt

Enrichment for Mandrills, Tigers, and Meerkats
by Katya Wolaschika and Rebecca Harry

Using Enrichment to Problem-Solve Stereotypies in Bears
by Else Poulsen

Reaching Out for Enrichment
by Matt Seguin, Dana LeBlanc, Minnie Cruz, Andrea Rosenberg, Cindy Marsh, Pam Poppett, and Layla Dampier

Gravity Feeder for Old World Fruit Bats
by Dana LeBlanc

Challenges: Bobcats, Nighttime Enrichment

Landing Platforms for Flying Foxes
by Dana LeBlanc


Have Your Tortoise Checked Every 3,000 Miles
by David Muir



VOLUME 8: 1999

8(1) February, 1999

8(2) May, 1999

Supplemental Carcass Feeding for Zoo Carnivores
by Lee Houts

Auditory Enrichment for Asian Elephants
by Lucy Melo

Not Just Another Ball
by Sue Pfaff

A Low-Tech, Quick-Change Mounting System for Enrichment Objects
by Michael J. Renner

Pi–ata Pandemonium at Utah's Hogle Zoo
by Dawn Neptune

Enrichment for African Lions
by Brooke Noonan

Enrichment Bucket
by Ryan Philip

Zoo Interns Take on Enrichment
by Betsie Davis and Ashlee Peterson

Stimulating Natural Protective Behaviors with Short Term Natural Stress
by Keri A. Van Wormer

An "Otterly" Enriching Environment
by Angela Gabbert

Connecting Kids with Prairie Dogs and Monkeys
by Dr. Terry Steele

Two Giraffe Enrichment Ideas
by Carrie Heisler Hill

Creating Artificial Vines for Natural Zoo Displays
by Danae L.F. Goss


Facilitating Browse Collection for the Botanically Challenged
by Amy Cutting


Challenges Column:
Polar Bear Needs


8(3) August, 1999

8(4) November, 1999

Enrichment for an Advanced Invertebrate
by James Wood and Deborah Wood

Bird Enrichment Takes Flight
by Amanda C. Sandos

 Natural Enrichment for Bonteboks
by Joseph Robertia 

Enrichment as a Part of the Healing Process: A Case Study
by Denise Testa

The Environmental Enrichment Program at Brookfield Zoo's Seven Seas
by Jacqueline Weiner, Greg Dye, Greg Dicosola, Andy Ferris, Wendy Komor, Jennifer McGee, Shawn Peck, Rita Stacey, Tim Sullivan, and Jan Sustman

Assessing and Addressing Animal Welfare in Zoos

by Kathy Carlstead

Demanding an Enriched Environment 
by Emily Patterson-Kane 

Creating Artificial Prey for Carnivores
by Denis Neufeld

Using Pi–atas for Behavioral Enrichment of Captive Carnivores
by Dagmar Gerdes

Summing It Up: The 4th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment
by Karen E. Worley

Hot Tubs for Snow Monkeys
by Jennifer Goodwin

Siamangs: Opportunities for Arboreal Foraging
by Samantha Stephens


VOLUME 7: 1998

7(1) February, 1998

7(2) May, 1998

Portable Digging Beds
by Mary Deroo

Enrichment Ideas for African Crested Porcupines
by Chris Bartos

Beluga Brush Boards
by William Winhall

Enrichment for Bird Brains
by Amanda Sandos

Frozen Enrichment
by Gary Berg

Polar Bear Enrichment at Wild Arctic
by William Winhall

Tepee Feeders for Small Cats
by Monica Bush

Stump Enrichment for Snow Monkeys
by Jennifer Goodwin

A Good Day's Fishing for River Otters
by Nyan Tinkous, Adrienne Whiteley, and B. Diane Chepko-Sade

Jelly Sticks and Activity Balls for Bears (and Others!)
by Karen Cowan and Annabel Musson

A Tree Roo Crazy for Kong Toys TM
by Stephanie Jochum

Enrichment Ideas for Cranes
by Jeff Gerencser

Aye-Aye Gruel Presentation
by Heather Ann Lynch and Joan H. Eisemann

A Mud Box for American Beavers
by Else Poulsen

Challenges Column:
Moustached Monkeys


7(3) August, 1998

7(4) November, 1998

Artificial Prey that Fights Back (and Other Tales of Tiger Enrichment)
by Valerie J. Hare and Paul Jarand

Providing Orangutans with Opportunities for Arboreal Behavior
by Nicholas Malone

Give 'Em a Life
by J. Perrin Hammond

Environmental Enrichment for Horses
by Sue Hunter

Orangutan Enrichment Options at Brookfield Zoo
by Barb Weber

A Multifunctional Lair for Tigers
by JŸrg Jenny and Marianne Hartmann

Slow Loris Enrichment at Burnet Park Zoo
by Nicole McGregor and B.D. Chepko-Sade

Bottlenose Dolphin Enrichment In an Interactive Feeding Pool
by Julie DeMarco

Training as Enrichment at Wild Arctic
by William Winhall

The Enrichment Bug
by Ophelia Aklaka

Supplemental Form:
Fourth Enrichment Conference
Grant Application

Termite Mounds at Paignton Zoo, England
by Jo Gregson


Supplemental Form:
Fourth Enrichment Conference
Grant Application


Supplemental Form:
Preliminary Registration for 4th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment


VOLUME 6: 1997

6(1) February, 1997

6(2) May, 1997

Enriching the Pride: Scents that Make Sense
by William K. Baker Jr, Robin Campbell, and John Gilbert

Paws to Play: Enrichment Ideas for Lynxes
by Denise Testa

Chimpanzee Enrichment at the Baltimore Zoo's Chimpanzee Forest
by Joanne Oliva-Purdy

Reptile Enrichment: Scenting for Response
by Laine E. Burr

Enrichment is a Win-Win-Win: For Animals, People, and Zoos
by Erick Shapiro

Training and Enrichment: Making Them Part of Job Criteria
by Marty Sevenich

Enrichment for Primates at the Burnet Park Zoo
by Kelley Bollen

Ice Treats Take on a Different Mold
by Julie Beth Warne-Reese

Enrichment Idea? Propose It!
by Kathy Wallace and Valerie J. Hare

Enrichment Idea? Define It!
by Valerie J. Hare and Kathy Wallace

Enriching Individual Birds in a Multi-Species Exhibit
by Elaine Willms

A-Mazing Orangutans
by Chris Barnett

Wonders for Walruses
by Jan Sustman and Shawn Saffer

Supplemental Form:
Second Enrichment Conference Proceedings


Supplemental Form:
Third Enrichment Conference Registration

6(3) August, 1997

6(4) November, 1997

Fire Hose Hammocks for Bears
by Karen Cowan

Providing Entertainment at No Cost
by Hilda Tresz, Linda Ambrose, Holly Halsch, and Annette Hearsh

Fruit Bats, Sticks, Flight, and Nonfood Enrichment
by Brian Pope, Mark Kirkpatrick,
and Dana LeBlanc

Enrichment and Tradition
by Eleftheria Karapanou

Housing and Enriching "Tough-Guy" Tayras
by Greg Bockheim

Raptor Enrichment at Jacksonville Zoological Gardens
By Laine Burr

Expand the Space for Lion-Tailed Macaques
by Dee Nelson

Enrichment Idea? Analyze It!
by Valerie J. Hare and Kathy Wallace

Saturn Balls for Dolphins
by Heather Lynch

Gift of Flowers to a Bevy of Megabats
by Dana LeBlanc

Enrichment Idea? Observe It!
by Valerie J. Hare and Kathy Wallace

Pop Goes Enrichment
by Patricia Hainley

Gorilla Treats Served Poolside
by Ann Rademacher

Sun Bear Training Promotes Well-Being
by Cheryl Frederick

Building a Polar Bear Den at the Calgary Zoo
by Else Poulsen and Jim Price

Supplemental Form:
Third Enrichment Conference Proceedings Order Form


VOLUME 5: 1996

5(1) February, 1996

5(2) May, 1996

Hogs Play at L.A.
by Robin Parker

Enrichment: Unpredictable Ropes and Fire
by Arnold Chamove

Can Reptiles Be Enriched?
by Tim Skelton

Mongoose Entertainment
by Susanne Klomberg

Micke Grove Zoo_s Enrichment Volunteers
by Lucy V. Jones

The Nose Knows: Olfactory Enrichment for Fruit Bats
by Betsy Stevens, Dana LeBlanc, Rick Gutman, Nonie Kirkpatrick, Mark Chag, and Angela Millwood

Enrichment for Tree Shrews and Tamarins
by Cathi Morrison

Spices and Smells for Enrichment
by Susanne Klomberg

The Enrichment Challenge: A New Primate
Rain Forest at Auckland Zoo
by Beverley H. Butler

Enriching Seals -- Those Other Marine Mammals
by Kathy Wassel


The Better to See You With: New Space for
by John Michel


Challenges Column:
Malayan Sun Bears

5(3) August, 1996

5(4) November, 1996

Got a Tiger by the Tug
by Else Poulsen and Larry Miller

Give Your Bats Grenades
by Mark Chag

Quick and Easy Enrichment at Sun Bear Forest
by Valerie Hare, Randall Herren, and Kathy

Enriching the Lives of Marmosets and Tamarins in Captivity
by H.M. Buchanan-Smith

Rummaging for Enrichment
by Allan Holomsback

Kids, Keepers, and Critters: Fusing Education
and Enrichment
by Marty Sevenich and David Bidwell

A ŅFlintstone WheelÓ for Enrichment
by Alberto Mendoza

Hog Heaven: Enrichment Challenges in the
ChildrenÕs Zoo
by Amy LeGaux

Sticks, Stones, and Streams for Waterfowl
by Marcelle Guidry

Go Fish: Opportunities for Roseate Spoonbills
by Donna OÕleary, B.Diane Chepko-Sade,
and Ted Fox


Chimps Take Over an Abandoned Logging
by Jon Coe


Challenges Column:


VOLUME 4: 1995

4(1) February, 1995

4(2) May, 1995

An Alternative to Processed Meat Diets:
Carcass Feeding at Wildlife Safari
by Gretchen Ziegler

Fowl Play at Edinburgh Zoo
by Andrew Mason

What to Do with a Broken Boomer BallØ
by Joyce Ford and Peggy OÕNeill

Creating Enrichment Programs for Primates
by Lori Holmberg

Environmental Enrichment for Felines
by Dwight Knapik

Disco Fever
by Taylor Edwards

Evolving a Behavioral Management Program
by M. A. Bloomsmith

Leafy Activity at the Audubon Zoo
by Lori J. Banchero

Behavioral Enrichment for Bears
by Daniella Ortner

Behavioral Architecture: Exhibit Design for the 21st Century
by Mary Deroo and Michael Demlong

The Effect of Food Distribution of Captive Old
World Primates
by Hannah Buchanan-Smith

Challenges Column:
Mandrills and Macaques

4(3) August, 1995

4(4) November, 1995

A Hammock in the Rain Forest for
by Carol Wolper

Otter Choices of Enrichment
by Nicole Neistadt

Vegetarian Enrichment for Carnivores!
by Elissa Knights

Simple and Cheap Enrichment for Omnivores
by Dennis Cartlidge

Enrich One, Empower the Other
by Ginger Hartnett

Spices as Aphrodisiacs
by Dana Wooster

Fun with Snake Sheds
by Michelle Acu–a

Chimp Platforms in Outdoor Enclosures
by Scott Suarez and Leila Forter

Primates and Coconut Halves
by Michelle Muniz

An Overview of the 1995 Environmental
Enrichment Conference
by Karen E. Worley and Valerie J. Hare

Mounds of Fun with Environmental Enrichment
by John Turner

A Shift Area for Cuban Crocodiles
by Michael Davenport

Conditioning White Rhinos
by Richard Cody

Challenges Column:
Lesser Octopi

Challenges Column:
Polar Bears and California Sea Lions



VOLUME 3: 1994

3(1) February, 1994

3(2) May, 1994

Tamarin Enrichment at the Utica Zoo
by Kathy Wassel and Scott Race

Fun for Apes: Art is Not Essential
by Mag. Claudia Kment

Think Like a Bird: A Practical Guide to
by Else Poulsen

Okapi Enrichment at Brookfield Zoo
by Mary Alison

Enrichment at the Knoxville Zoo
by Kim Widner

Fire Hoses for Climbing
by Laurie McGivern

Monkeys on Ice
by Else Poulsen

Jennett Rain Ball
by Dave Jennett

Enrichment fro Woolly Monkeys
by Silvia Logsdon

Small Primate Enrichment at the Calgary Zoo,
Part 3: Patas and Spider Monkeys
by Laurie McGivern

Food-Scattering Enrichment for Zoo Bears:
Does It Really Work?
by Jim Dobberstine and David

Fruit Stringer for Bats
by Keith Atkinson

Lemur Feeding: ItÕs in the Trees
by Stephanie Tomoser

A New Habitat for Cats
by John Michel

Challenges Column:
Aardvark and Parrot

Challenges Column:
PrzewalskiÕs Horse and Large Rodents

3(3) August, 1994

3(4) November, 1994

Sea Bird Enrichment at the Oregon Coast
by Nicole Neistadt and Cinthia Alia

The Bear Essentials
by Jean Ervin

Monkey Buckets
by Scott Suarez and Mart Smith

Elephant Feeder Balls
by Jane Gilbert and Valerie J. Hare

Whose Life Is Really Being Enriched Here?
by Suzanne Stern

A Bear/Gorilla Toy with No Experience and No Money
by Joyce Ford

Frozen Enrichment for Chimpanzees
by Phil Hendrix and Susan Lambeth

Shaping Sound Environments
by C. T. Tromberg

A Log Baffle for Gator and Mike
by Laurie Morgan

A Garden of Enrichment
by Jan Vermeer

Walrus Enrichment through Husbandry Training
by William R. Winhall

Challenges Column:
Capybaras and Enrichment Scents

Challenges Column:
Gibbon and Warthog



VOLUME 2: 1993

2(1) February, 1993

2(2) May, 1993

Stimulating Natural Behaviors: Enrichment for
Brains and Hands
by James Maxwell

Marine Mammal Enrichment at the Oregon
Coast Aquarium
by Bill Lemus

Cats: Enrichment in Every Sense
by Graham Law

Feeder Logs, Swings, and Perches for Primates
by Camille Dorian

Enriching an ElephantÕs Environment
by Corinne Green

Giraffe Ice Rings
by William Blayney

Bat Bits
by Michael Illig

Another Passive Insect Dispenser
by Michael Demlong

Mealtime Activity for Lemurs
by Stephanie Tomoser

Small Primate Enrichment at the Calgary Zoo,
Part 1: Squirrel Monkeys & Tree Shrews
by Laurie McGivern

Naturalistic Exhibit Enrichment at the Reid Park Zoo
by Dee Nelson

At Home in the Tropical Rain Forest
by Sherri Nordin


Playing with Their Food Ideas for Elephants
by Jay Haight


Foraging Encouragement for Bears
by Kathy Twamley

2(3) August, 1993

2(4) November, 1993

A Sandbox and Bungee Boots for Hosenose
by Joanne Leveille, Michelle Wright, and
Susan Edwards

Christmas Trees for Environmental Enrichment
by Michelle Acu–a

Modifying Spider Monkey Behavior with the
Use of Environmental Variables
by Les Stenga

Variety Is the Spice of Life
by Tim Pappas

Enriching the Enricher
by Peter Ryan

Reverse Perspective: Basic Elephant
Management or Enrichment?
by Jay Haight

Tamarins Also Feed on Exudates
by Dana LeBlanc

Ungulate Enrichment
by Russell L. Smith

Building a Behavioral Enrichment Program at
Brookfield Zoo
by Katherine Isbeister and the Behavioral
Enrichment Group

Little TykesØ Swing for Small Primates
by Camille Dorian

Environmental Enrichment at Twycross Zoo,
United Kingdom
by Andrew Mason

Small Primate Enrichment at the Calgary Zoo,
Part 2: Lemurs
by Laurie McGivern

Enrichment Through Vertical and Horizontal
by Mary Deroo

Coatimundi Exhibit Renovation: Success with
by Mike Seidman

Cage Top Feeding for Primates
by Adam Britt

Encouraging Foliovory in Flying Foxes
by Dana LeBlanc, Amelia Field, and
Jeanette Roberts

Reinforcement: The Key to Shaping Behavior
by Gary Priest

At Sea World, Pleasure Is the Key to Enrichment
by Ken Williamson and Mike Scarpuzzi


The Spinning Rake: Stimulating Foraging
Behavior in Bats
by Beccy Porter


VOLUME 1: 1992

1(1) August, 1992

1(2) November, 1992

An Exhibit for Drills: From Drab to Dazzling
by Thaya duBois

Cat Nips
by Craig Lewis and colleagues

Environmental Enrichment for South American Fur Seals
by John Partridge

The Case for Enrichment
by David Shepherdson

Walking the Condor
by Suzanne Esterbrook-Merner

Bungee Jumping Monkeys
by Beth Schwenk

Treat Tubes for Orangutans
by Robert Shumaker

N.O.A.H. (Naturalized Operant Animated Habitat)
by Roger C. Bacon

Horticultural Support of Animal Collections
by Daniel A. Simpson

Habitat Enrichment for Two Species of Pheasants
by Dan Bruce

Browse at the Baltimore Zoo
by Allie Dewey

Polar Bear Enrichment at the Calgary Zoo
by Else M.B. Poulsen

Exhibit Improvements to the Sun Bear Forest Area at the San Diego Zoo
by Sun Bear Forest Team

Addressing Psychological Well-Being: Training as Enrichment
by Gail Laule

A Diet for Primates
by Allie Dewey




© 2006-2013 The Shape of Enrichment, Inc. Webmaster Visits this month: 404
Website Design and Implementation by Randy Weeton Website Graphic Design by Azlynn Hare